Frequently Asked Questions: Monkey Pox Outside Africa – What We Know And What We Don’t Know

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The outbreak of monkeypox in Europe and the United States was not contained a month after its appearance. The virus has now reached 27 countries and has more than 40 mutations. This is known about him.

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Fairy Annabelle Repling

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780 confirmed cases in 27 countries – this is the situation a month after the outbreak of monkeypox outside Africa.

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The cases are traceable to the type of virus in West Africa.  In Africa, where the pathogen is endemic, this leads to the death of about 1% of those infected.  There is also a variant from Central Africa, where ten percent of cases on the continent are fatal.

The cases are traceable to the type of virus in West Africa. In Africa, where the pathogen is endemic, this leads to the death of about 1% of those infected. There is also a variant from Central Africa, where ten percent of cases on the continent are fatal.

via Reuters

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However, Geneva-based virologist Isabella Eckerl is alarmed to say “light”. It is misleading. “A disease with a mortality rate of one percent is not what we in medicine usually call mild.” The researcher defends the term “variable”. <أقل ضراوة> from West Africa (compared to Central Africa).

University of Geneva

How many cases are there now?

The first case of the current outbreak was reported in early May 2022 in a traveler returning to the UK from Nigeria. A month later, 780 cases of the viral disease were known, which occurred in 27 non-endemic countries (as of June 6). According to the World Health Organization, it can be assumed that the number of unreported cases is much higher worldwide. It is located in Switzerland According to BAG, there are currently eight laboratory-confirmed cases (as of June 7).

Is swing trade really “moderate”?

Although people with monkeypox recover within a few weeks, the disease can kill 1 in 100 people. Therefore, Geneva-based virologist Isabella Eckerl considers the attribution “light” to be “extremely misleading”. It calls for the term “alternative”. <أقل ضراوة> from West Africa (compared to Central Africa).

Because, according to Eckerle: “A disease with a one percent mortality rate is not what we in medicine would ordinarily call mild.”

Plus, one doesn’t yet know what’s behind the current number of cases and what that means for the future, as I suggested in another tweet. In it, she quotes Anne Remoen, an epidemiologist at the University of California and Los Angeles and a monkeypox researcher: “We get upset when we see a virus that does things we wouldn’t normally see…We really have to re-evaluate what we now know about monkeypox (…) in different species. very much of the population.”

The World Health Organization continues to classify the global risk of monkeypox as ‘moderate’. However, she added, “significant public health risks could arise if the virus could become a common human pathogen in non-endemic countries.”

The CDC talks about two different pathogens circulating in the United States. what does that mean?

Genetic analyzes indicate that there are two distinct strains of monkeypox in the United States. According to experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), this indicates a greater possibility that the virus has been spreading undetected for a long time. How long is it still open? And that requires further analysis, according to Jennifer McCuston. She believes it is possible that monkeypox cases have been controlled in the United States, “but not to a large extent.”

According to the WHO Regional Director for Europe, Hans-Henri Kluge, investigations into the cases so far indicate that the outbreak in the WHO’s Europe region was already underway in mid-April. Virologist Eckerle argues that monkeypox is unlikely to be spreading undetected outside Africa for years: “We either have to seriously reconsider surveillance of emerging and re-emerging viruses globally, or we ignore an important aspect of the current outbreak. I personally find it difficult to Imagine trading for years.”

Samples from people infected with monkeypox in Switzerland are also being analyzed. Preliminary results are currently available for the first two cases identified in Switzerland 21 And the 24 may before. According to them, their virus sequence is “genomically related to cases reported in many other countries in relation to the current outbreak,” says one of them. message.

Monkeypox virus recently mutated faster than usual, so what does that mean?

which is still open. In fact, smallpox viruses mutate slowly. But the genetic sequence associated with the current spread differs from the sequence four years ago by about 40 mutations, according to Richard Nir, a biophysicist at the University of Basel.

Changes have been observed in all samples from the eruption so far. So it is likely that all infections are due to a single case, researchers led by Joao Paulo Gomez of the Portuguese National Institute of Health write in one pre-release. The data do not show whether the mutations make the virus fitter and thus cause outbreaks outside Africa.

“The vast majority of them are probably unrelated or harmful to the virus, and we have no evidence of viral adaptation,” Neher said. on Twitter. To him, it’s as if “the mutation is a kind of scar that the virus carried away when it came into contact with the host’s immune system,” he said. Deutschlandfunk.de Finder website. On the other hand, Gomez’s team reported evidence that the virus had begun to adapt to humans. One of the changes is already known from Central Africa. He writes that it is suspected to be linked to more effective transmission of monkeypox from human to human Spektrum.de.

The World Health Organization warns of the spread of monkeypox at large festivals and parties – how big is the risk?

The warning came from Cluj: “This Possibility for further transmission In Europe and elsewhere, the summer is high.” It seems that Cluj is primarily concerned with raising people’s awareness. He stressed that, according to current information, there is no need for such comprehensive measures at the population level as in the case of Corona, where the virus spreads in other ways. He called for reducing the number of infections from Through “clear communication, isolating the infected and tracing the contacts effectively” in order to limit the spread of the disease.

Infection in major events cannot be ruled out: monkeypox can According to BAG, “This is done through close contact with an infected person.” You don’t need sex or kisses: “The monkeypox virus can be transmitted from person to person through droplets, infectious body secretions, or through contaminated surfaces,” says Esther Konsley, deputy chief medical officer at the Swiss Institute of Tropical and Public Health. 20 minutes. “However, this requires close contact with infected people over a long period of time.” In principle, monkeypox is transmitted from person to person much less easily than, for example, measles, chickenpox or even Covid-19.

It remains unclear whether monkeypox virus can also spread through semen or vaginal secretions. Although you have Italian researchers in the sperm of three patients “Large amounts of monkeypox virus have been detected”. But they stress that these results “cannot be considered conclusive evidence of infection”. And there are many other viruses “that can be found in semen without direct evidence of sexual transmission.” More investigations are needed.

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