In Munich, he campaigned primarily against the enslavement of Ukraine by the Soviet Union. He found support from various Western news services. The Soviets had sentenced Bandera to death in absentia.
“You could call him both a radical nationalist and a fascist.” Historian Grzegorz Rosolinsky Lippi, who lives in Berlin, wrote a biography of Bandera. The book is already available in English, Polish and Ukrainian, but not German:
It was shaped by European fascist discourses. Officially, Ukrainian nationalists did not use the term fascism. But internal letters, as well as communications with Mussolini and Hitler’s Germany, make it clear that the United Nations received a transnational fascism, first from Italy, then from Germany and then invented its own Ukrainian fascism.
Bandera rose in 30 years to the inner circle of leaders of the OUN, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. In 1934 a Polish court sentenced him to death for his role in the attempted assassination of the Polish Interior Minister. The sentence was commuted to prison.
“It is difficult to prove his involvement in the massacres of Jews because he was not directly involved in them, but only as the creator of the ideology that led to it,” says Frank Golchevsky, a Hamburg historian and Ukraine specialist.
In part, they wanted to expel the three groups: the Jews, the Poles, and the Russians. These were the main enemies of the United Nations,” says Grzegorz Rosolinsky Libby.
When the people noticed that Germany was not going to win the war and when they wanted a change, they said goodbye to fascism abroad. That was the desire to work with the United States, with the allies – against the Soviet Union.”
After the war, when Bandera lived in West Germany, his supporters fought for an independent Ukraine until the 50s of the last century. On the other hand, the Soviet Army and KGB agents used brutal force. 150,000 Western Ukrainians fell victim to this terrorism, and more than 200,000 were deported into the Soviet Union. Soviet crimes contributed to a secret cult of heroes and victims around Bandera.
In doing so, he distorted the facts, says Frank Golchevsky: “The cult of Bandera, including the entire nationalist orientation, has been marginalized in recent years. It was relatively well represented in Parliament around 2013/2014. Meanwhile, it is no longer represented in Parliament” .
“It is safe to say that Mr. Melnik also adopted and implemented some elements of the OKI’s ideology. This includes absolute hatred of Russia. In perspective, the Russians are seen as the main and hereditary enemies of the Ukrainians.”
Melnyk became known for representing Ukrainian interests in Germany with great determination. He recently drew attention because he declined the invitation of the Federal President to attend a solidarity concert for Ukraine. On the basis that artists of Russian origin will perform there. But those who attended, belonged to those who condemned the Russian war of aggression.